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cosa Ã Â“Ã‘Â“Ã Â–Ã¢Â€Â™Ã Â“Ã¢Â€ÂšÃ Â’Ã Â auto opzioni binarie e come funziona By mthomas
binära optioner valuta I bought this book by Tyler Coleman (DrVino), because I thought it would help me improve my understanding of the American wine market. I love America (some bits) but, despite my numerous visits, never feel I have really got to grips with its history and more specifically its changing attitudes towards wine. It is so full of complexity and contradictions, in part because of its size and diversity, and is completely different from the ‘old world’ of wine which is much more familiar to me.
الدينار العراقي بالفوركس Tyler writes engagingly, without ‘dumbing down’, so the book was a useful model for writing style, as well as research, for a chapter I’m writing on wine business. Split into 7 chapters the book flits about and touches on what could be quite disparate areas; history, criticism, politics, philosophy, viticulture, legislation… If a topic is significant in terms of ‘how wine reaches your table’, it is included. It also transcends North America in scope and acknowledges the huge influence of Europe and, unsurprisingly, France before moving ‘across the Atlantic’.
http://moragbrand.com/?ljap=trading-piu-economico&d0b=d1 trading piu economico The book grew out of the author’s political science Phd at Northwestern University and it is admirable that what may have disappeared into a dusty library reference section has been adapted for a wider audience. I have examined four Doctorates in the last few weeks and all have something to offer in terms of impact but I worry that their authors are so busy they will never publish. Academia expects publication but does not always provide the infrastructure and support to get research ‘out there’.
binär optionen gewinne versteuern A section on ‘Fraud and crisis’ in the early twentieth century is fascinating. He is also good on the ‘paradox of prohibition’; that small home wineries flourished during this period. The photos and figures are a bit disappointing though. Nicolas Joly’s very attractive cow on page 137 seems a bit random and in mono somewhat dull if not forlorn. Much more importantly, the notes are comprehensive and useful. I guess this is a book for libraries and researchers rather than enthusiasts or coffee tables but that is no bad thing. So, if you want to know how the mob influenced your Napa Valley red you know where to look.
iqoption affiliate Colman, T. (2008) Wine Politics; How Environmentalists, Mobsters and Critics Influence the Wines We Drink University of California Press
binární opce kde obchodovat By mthomas
http://www.hopeforthewearymom.com/?strazu=guadagno-con-le-opzioni-binarie&c7b=52 guadagno con le opzioni binarie The subtitle of this book is ‘Uncork your creative juices’ and I really enjoyed Gelb’s upbeat approach to the contribution wine can make to an enjoyable life. Don’t be dismayed by some of the ‘left brain, right brain’ blurb, Gelb is good on history (especially the Renaissance), culture and enjoyment. He also suggests useful mnemonics such as WINO (weight, intensity… ) for description and TIPSY (Type, … Years) to guide wine purchases. The science in this book is peripheral, at best implicit rather than explicit, and you shouldn’t expect to be wowed by it. However, the underlying message, regarding engagement with wine, is a useful one and some of his practical ‘exercises’ are effective.
http://winevault.ca/?perex=bloombex-option bloombex option Gelb has previously written on ‘untapping potential’ and the idea that we can all be as creative as Leonardo da Vinci. This is optimistic, to say the least, but positive psychology demonstrates that a ‘broaden and build’ approach based on competency, rather than rectifying deficits, can improve our sense of well being (so optimism, even the blind sort can pay off). I liked the way Gelb debunks without being destructive; most wine talk is guff, but the playfulness of Gelb’s approach avoids cynicism. He cites Jose Ortega y Gasset’s suggestion that metaphor is ‘magic’ and a ‘tool for creation’ and goes on to suggest a series of rhetorical questions which can be used to appreciate a wine. For example;
وظيفة مصحح لغوي ‘If this wine had a shape, what would it be?’ and ‘What images, associations, colours or memories does it inspire?’
top option roboter These can appear ludicrous or trite but actually result in metaphors that are no more outlandish than many used in ‘the trade’. Gelb gives permission for creativity and play which is well needed to counteract all the pretension pedalled by wine bores who simply regurgitate the opinion of others as ‘the truth’ about a wine. Individuals own their subjective experience of a wine and live in their own taste worlds. What is vital is that they explore this subjective experience, triangulate and try to understand it. This is often best achieved through mindfulness, discourse and social interaction, and Gelb celebrates this.
opcje binarne akademia wagnera This is a thoughtful book that is inclusive, idiosyncratic and fun but the downside of this is that it is a bit ‘scatter gun’ in its approach and has some padding (much of the final section is essentially appendices). The four sections seem convenient rather than logical with the ‘practical tips’ coming first. I guess this is because ‘tips on buying’ are an attractive hook in terms of sales. The historical chapter (‘The Elixir of Genius’) in section 2 is really very good but seems incongruous plonked in the second half of the book as the information contextualises many of his arguments. These are minor gripes and this is an accessible book with much to enjoy.
http://onodenje.com/?strydor=bin%C3%A4re-optionen-lehrgang binäre optionen lehrgang Gelb, J. (2010) Wine Drinking for Inspired Thinking Running Press
A couple of colleagues at the university commented on my last post about legislation and a minimum price for wine. They pointed out that the Government is increasingly embracing a ‘nudge’ approach (aka ‘libertarian paternalism’) to public health. The Cabinet Office have established a Behavioural Insight Team (already nicknamed ‘The Nudge Unit’) which published its first paper (here) on 31st December last year. This discussed the use of psychological principles to improve public health and argued against ‘strong-arm’ interventionist tactics.
I have, like many, been reading Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein’s “Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness” pictured above. The idea is that people can be encouraged to change habits (e.g. reduce ‘binge drinking’) with low cost interventions such as a reminder to buy fruit and vegetables on shopping trolleys. Examples of nudges (including one designed to support people in not smoking and another which promotes the use of motorcycle helmets) can be found (here). The coalition government in the UK is clearly interested in low cost solutions and libertarian principles (for pragmatic economic as well as ideological reasons). The relationship between psychology and ideology is problemmatic though and issues of informed consent are likely to be raised when behaviour modification, rather than educational, programmes are implemented. Nudges website here.
Happy New Year to everyone who has supported the site during 2010. My primary aim is to write things I enjoy for likeminded souls not to pursue maximum traffic so the hits and comments have been welcome. Despite offers from advertisers I have still managed not to succumb and think it is important for the site to retain independence and long term credibility. It is hard to take sites seriously when they have banners from wine companies, especially when they review and score wines. It is difficult enough to manage conflicts of interest without accepting advertising so god knows what it must be like once you have.
The festive season went with a blur and I am trying to get back into the swing of blogging. It was not only playing FIFA 11 with the kids which ate up time over the last few weeks. In the lead up to Xmas there were the numerous bits of casework and writing to tidy up and seemingly endless work dos, an artefact of multiple jobs, as well as family and friends to catch up with. I also had to manage a lot of spam on the site and have not really found time to update the research pages although I have read a few books (my ‘wine book of the year’ to follow).
Lots of good wine during the break but also a few disappointments. The Meursault from Avery’s (blog here) was oxidised but the Roumier Chambolle Musigny that followed more than made up for it and was perfect with turkey and all the trimmings. High spots also included trying 07 Vieux Telegraphe (I prefer the 06 to both the 05 and 07 at the moment) and some claret with perfect provenance that suggests Bordeaux was as hit and miss as Burgundy during the 80s. I still haven’t bought any 09s and am intrigued by the market for them. Surely more twist and turns (peaks and troughs) to come.
So… my wine book of the year, although it is dated 2009, was Robin Butler’s Great British Wine Accessories. Maybe a strange choice given that there were lots of erudite, engaging and well written books about wine in 2010 but I just loved the great quality plates, clarity of communication and his passion for the topic. It is not cheap but has extremely good production values and is a definitive reference. Everything you could ever want to know about corkscrews, decanters and bin labels produced from 1550 to 1900. It is available for £45 instead of £65 here.
Butler, R. (2009) Great British Wine Accessories Brown and Brown, Suffolk
Having kids gives me an excuse to read their books and the quality of fiction for children and young people at the moment is amazing. Harry Potter has defined a generation of new readers (I can’t say I like them that much) but it was Phillip Pullman who upped the ante in terms of quality with Northern Lights and the rest of the Dark Materials Trilogy. These are serious books that take on the big issues of our times (power, consumerism, faith) whilst maintaining compelling and engaging narratives.
I really love Charlie Higson’s Junior Bond books (Hurricane Gold is stupendous) and his new trilogy depicting a London where adults have turned into zombies is terrific and, at times, terrifying. Johnny Depp said that Paul Whitehouse, Higson’s partner on the Fast Show is a genius actor, and my view is that Higson is producing a body of work that should elevate him into the highest echelons of writing for youngsters.
Most recently I have been competing with eldest son Luke to complete the Hunger Games trilogy by Susanne Collins. Lord of the Flies meets 1984 meets Battle Royale, I can’t put it down and am currently engrossed in the final book. It gives me huge satisfaction to see my kids read for pleasure. I feel guilty that I am reading rather than writing though….
The Hunger Games is another book that satirises the excesses of contemporary existence. I am conscious that I write about ‘fine’ food and wine whilst lots of the world’s population go hungry. I sometimes rationalise by thinking my ‘day job’ making a difference for children and families might give me some plusses in the good karma bank. Like many, I also do the odd bit for charity (which I am ambivalent about as it sometimes seems simply to allow for guilt to be avoided and helps to maintain the status quo). Charity records sometimes cause me to leave the room in disgust. I guess that I try to be a productive member of my community, supporting my neighbours and local initiatives. Global politics can seem so overwhelming but treating those around you with care and respect appears achievable in most contexts.
The wine world simply reflects the Zeitgeist. Muscadet growers file for bankruptcy in their droves whilst an elite in Bordeaux sit back and watch the money pour in. We live in a culture that is built upon inequality and there are psychological explanations for this. I try to keep Positive Psychology in mind when I read about evolutionary selfishness and social exchange theory. I am still on the look out for examples of real altruism but perhaps it is always going to be the domain of dolphins not humans…
I do not review many wines because this is primarily a psychology/wine website not a ‘wines I drink’ site, of which there are many of greatly variable quality. I also think that reviewing (don’t even mention arbitrary and impoverished scoring) a wine, based on a mouthful at a tasting, is so far removed from the experience of enjoying a wine with company and a meal that it is irrelevant to most of us. Many wines are also too tedious to write about but some demand it when they deliver a wonderful sensory experience. These are wines made with love and care that work with contextual factors, such as food and mood, to produce an emergent level of enjoyment.
After a long and rewarding day at work I opened a bottle of J.L. Chave’s Selection St Joseph ‘Offerus’ and it really delivered. It is another Wine Society 2004 Rhone that spent its life in my cellar (a different 2004 St Joseph review is here for comparison). I have previously suggested that these are food friendly, well priced, often traditional in style yet sophisticated and enjoyable wines. 2004 is not the most highly rated year for Rhones (due to the proximity of ‘great years’) but was generally sound and good makers seem to have been able to express their skills and individuality. The Chave family have been making wines in the area since 1481 so do not lack commitment or experience. Jean-Louis (Chave the younger) uses the ‘selection’ label to make traditional but affordable wines in a Chai seperate from the main cellars. Chave have lots of parcels of Syrah and the ‘Offerus’ is a blend from St. Jean de Muzols (black fruit with cassis and spicy/herbal notes) and Mauves (red fruit and minerality). It works so well because it delivers both in a unified way. I decanted into the lovely (but hard to photograph as evidenced in pic below) Riedel Syrah decanter bought for me by some thoughtful and generous trainees last year. I love using this because it is aesthetically pleasing in terms of its design and feel. Like much of the range it is designed to optimise a specific wine and in this case is successful in adding value by enhancing the characteristics of the wine.
It had thrown some sediment, which can be a counter-intuitive mark of quality, and I stopped decanting at just the right point. The decanted wine was bright and crystalline, the remainder put in a glass to one side (and its cloudy intensity really enjoyable later!). The thing I loved about this wine was the overall balance; not too boozy at 13.5%, plenty of acid giving freshness, rounded and integrated tannins, and that combination of red and black fruits which really kept me engaged. The mineral complexity, herbiness and spicy notes, such as camphor and cedarwood, metaphorical icing on the proverbial cake.
Work was particularly rewarding because I am enjoying developing a new doctorate module, ‘Consultation and Intervention’. I was also contacted by Professor Richard Wiseman, psychologist and magician, who is Director of the 2011 Edinburgh International Science Festival. I am a great admirer of Richard’s work and was flattered to be asked to speak at the Festival. He has the enviable ability to communicate complex psychological knowledge in an entertaining fashion. He often runs large scale experiments on TV and we talked about plans related to tasting trials during the festival. Examples of his work can be seen on youtube (links below) and his excellent website is here. Make sure you look at his books, I can highly recommend them. ‘The Luck Factor’ changed my behaviour in that it made explicit a range of easily implemented strategies to influence positive life outcomes.
Try these videos: Colour changing card trick and ways to change your life in 59 seconds and the seminal awareness test.
And finally… The levitating cork. Enjoy.
DBC Pierre’s latest novel might be of interest to literary wine lovers not only for the biting satire and wonderful prose, but also for the inclusion of a wine subplot. He bases a character on Roger Pike (the charismatic winemaker of Marius Wines – website here) and name-checks some of the ‘cult’ (mainly Shiraz based) wines he makes in McLaren vale; Symphony, Simpatico…. I guess having been born in an old Australian winery, and being infamous for his appetite for intoxicating substances, it was only a matter of time before wine became a topic in his fiction.
This new novel from the author of the widely celebrated Vernon God Little offers more evidence that he is one of the strongest voices in contemporary fiction. In Lights Out in Wonderland he takes on the hedonistic excesses of capitalism with a focus on epic gastroporn events; roast milk fed tiger cub is one of the less exotic amuse bouches! His suicidal protagonist, Gabriel Brockwell, provides a damaged, and cynical, perspective on the world (London, Tokyo, Berlin) following his ‘escape from rehab’ at the start of the book. He proceeds, through a series of modern misadventures with classical allusions, to re-evaluate his view of limbo and ‘Enthusiasms’. The writing is witty, acerbic and incredibly well-observed.
I hate reading spoilers, so will avoid any, but this is a really thoughtful and deceptively optimistic book. If you are not aware of DBC’s (Dirty But Clean) background it is worth seeking out the wonderful BBC profile of him. The book of Gabriel website linked to the book is here.
Pierre, D.B.C., (2010) Lights Out in Wonderland Faber and Faber
Got back last night from great writing and sailing trip to Greece. There were five of us on our boat (two other psychologists, skipper Pete and my very good friend Paul, Mike the Barrister and Roy who created and writes ‘New Tricks’ for the BBC) and seven on the other boat (skippered by Pete’s brother John) who we affectionately referred to as ‘The Hobbits’ due to their diminutive size compared to us 6 footers. We had a new Bavaria 45 (pictured to the left) which handled beautifully and has plenty of space. The trip was superb and along the way we also took in some great Greek culture including plenty of wines.
We left Athens and did a roundabout trip taking in most of the Saronic islands and some of the mainland towns such as Epidavros. A highlight was mooring in the notoriously difficult Hydra (pictured right) after the rescue of a French family. They had snagged their anchor on an electrical cable and Pete dived down over 5 metres to release it. He is an absolute legend and with Mike, Paul and Roy, was fantastic company.
In between the sailing I managed to read, and make notes on, William Younger’s opus; Gods, Men and Wine. It was a work of love he completed following a stint working for the intelligence services during the war. The introduction sets the tone to this learned and fascinating history of wine;
“Wine suffers a heaving birth. It has a rough, groping childhood. It develops into adolescence. Then if it does not sicken, it matures: and in this it is almost human since it does not mature according to a fixed rule but according to the law of its particular and individual personality. The act which gives it personality is the act of fermentation. In this metamorphosis it is changed from fruit into animal: sometimes even an animal of splendor.”
It was great to read about wines in antiquity whilst visiting some of the places mentioned. The section on wine and the Romans is incredibly insightful and informative, and some of the illustrative plates fascinating in terms of aesthetics and content. If you can get hold of a copy it is one of the great wine books.
As for the wine we drank… I am a lover of Greek wines but found the majority of the bottled wines available on the islands were overpriced and poor. However, we ate out most evenings and the house rosé in most tavernas was consistently enjoyable and very cheap. No-one ever seemed to know the grapes but it was fresh, light and perfect for the food and climate. Usually, but not always, quite dark for rosé, it was good to support local producers who, like many Greeks, are having a tough time. We often left carrying a couple of litres (mineral water bottles refilled) which we subsequently drank at lunch the next day, after a sail and swim, over one of Roy’s miraculous lunches whilst moored off a secluded cove. Bliss.
At times I found myself reflecting on how life must have been for the Greeks on these islands thousands of years ago. Wine had important functions in terms of religion, economics and culture but was also ‘medication’, nourishment and entertainment. I like to think the wine I drank was pretty close to some of those they had enjoyed and, in many ways, beneath the veneer of modernity and sophistication little has changed.
Younger, W. (1966) Gods, Men and Wine The Wine and Food Society
Martin Walker is probably best known as a Guardian journalist. He was Bureau Chief in Moscow and European Editor in the United States. He has also written a range of non-fiction texts including The Cold War and presented BBC programmes on Russia and ‘Clintonomics‘. He spends summers in his house in the Dordogne and writes detective novels set in the fictional town of St Denis.
The hero of this series of books, which includes the wine focussed The The Dark Vineyard, is Bruno Courreges a parochial gendarme. He is a paragon of French culture who teaches rugby and tennis to local children. He also finds time to tread grapes with neighbours, bed various women and catch villains.
An arson attack on a research centre with GM crops triggers an investigation involving a Californian wine corporation, young French would be winemakers and a hippy commune. There is also room for a selection of slightly stereotypical St Denis characters including the odd newbie Brit settler. It is all very easy on the intellect and has some nice touches for Francophiles. The wine content is pretty undemanding and in many ways peripheral but there are a few interesting passages including one linking the treading of grapes to a spike in birth rates 9 months later.
There is a Bruno website which even has pictures of Gigi, Bruno’s truffle sniffing Basset Hound. My dad had one when I was very young and I always assumed they were English so it was interesting to read that they are thought to have been bred by St Hubert (the patron saint of hunting) for boar hunting and their ears funnel up scents to their nose. I must look out for human versions at future tastings.
I spend a lot of time reading quite demanding texts so crime novels are a bit of a guilty pleasure. I often gravitate towards French and Italian detective novels, particularly those written by Fred Vargas but she can’t write them fast enough for me. In the interim I might dip into more of this series.
I had decided not to buy this book because it is expensive and I had read a highly critical review by the usually reliable W. Blake Grey at ‘Vinography’. However, a well-meaning pal bought me a copy and so I spent a few hours wading through it. If only I could have that time back again. I think they should have called it ‘Pretentious about wine: clumsy literary references are easier than careful evaluation and communication about psychological research and knowledge relating to wine’ . I found it is the most annoying book (tone and content) about wine that I have read in some time.
A few points before I start the review proper:
- I usually only review books, articles or papers containing information I think people will find useful and/or are well-written (this is evidenced by previous reviews – click on link to left to read them)
- Any views expressed are mine alone and not representative of my employers, publishers, family or any one else I haven’t thought of
- I am writing a book on psychology and wine and thus my perspective is a particular one
- There are some great writers out there who are working hard to demystify wine, and to increase participation and enjoyment
- I alluded to Blake Grey’s negative review of the book in a blog a few months back and one of the authors sent me an email that included the following passage ” ignorance of the implications of experimental design and methodology in the behavioural sciences is something you seem happy to share with your colleague. (Add to this an ignorance of two millennia’s philosophy of aesthetics, as your fatuous musings unwittingly show.)” Other passages were less flattering, even more pompous, inaccurate and, to be frank, very amusing – for the record I supervise Doctoral level research (including experimental methodology) in psychology and Blake Grey is not a colleague (we have never even met)
- Mr Mitchell did not respond to my offer to publish the email he sent, review the book or pass the book to another reviewer
- I withdrew the blog out of courtesy but stated an intention to review the book in future
So, what is this book like?
In my opinion it is self-indulgent, pretentious and ‘so bad it’s funny’. The worst indictment however is the paucity of psychology. I tend to subscribe to the Oxford English Dictionary definition; The science of the nature, function and phenomena of human mind. I know that there are different ‘psychologies’ and enjoy the diversity of these. If this book had outlined the relative value of nomothetic and idiographic approaches before launching in to a series of anecdotes I would have been unconcerned as there can be value in an anecdotal approach when executed with reflexivity, wit and insight. What this book appears to be is something it is, in my opinion, not i.e. a book to inform readers of psychological research and findings related to wine (which I guess is what most people might expect from the title).
The authors repeatedly fail to operationalise key areas under examination and show little awareness of the wealth of studies into sensory and neuropsychological aspects of our interaction with wine. References are literary and subjective, strung together with hyperbole and simplistic analysis “Wine is a multi-multi-billion dollar industry…”. The authors continually use three words, where one (perhaps none) would have sufficed, and indulge in rambling and interminable asides. Perhaps they should read Orwell on writing because I guess he, and their literary heroes such as Beckett, might have viewed their posturing style as anathema with carefully composed words being interpreted in such a self-serving and arbitrary manner.
The tone is set with a badly judged vignette where the authors imagine the ‘discovery’ of wine by a ‘Neanderthal’ called ‘Ugg’ who is later transformed into ‘Daisy’ in an apparent attempt to make a simplistic point about gender. In fact this trivialising of an evolutionary perspective, and complete failure to capture the incredible psychological implications of such an event only appears in ‘Chapter’ 3 following a tiresome eulogy to a glass of wine on Santorini (the one page first ‘Chapter’) and confusing passage on Caravaggio in ‘Chapter’ 2 where the authors find time (fill space?) by commenting “This film was marked by the appearance of the translucent Tilda Swinton, who subsequently graduated from indie film muse to Narnia white witch and oscar winner” (page 7). Now that’s what I want from a book about psychology and wine…
Vague allusions to ‘anthropological theories’ are made but never fully materialize. There are small sections on memory and language that are vaguely coherent but these are found in a plethora of cheaper, better written and widely available books, and serve only to highlight the absence of any central thesis regarding psychology and wine. The authors appear too busy producing flatulent comments on ‘fave films’ to include key information on the way we think and talk about wine.
The section on ratings berates us with the idea that scores are ‘all about authority’ but the authors demonstrate a complete lack of insight into the limitations of their own ‘authoritative’ stance as well as the irony of such a statement. Most psychologists recognise the role of statistics but the Mitchells seem content (complacent) in simply pontificating about ratings rather than pursuing any meaningful analysis in terms of the properties of scales or the limitations of such heuristics.
Chapter 8 consists of a list of grape varieties with the author’s ‘idiosyncratic’ take on each. Examples include ”Albarino – Wants to love you with seafood, in its Spanish manner.” (page 49) and Tempranillo – Ole’!!!” (page 51) This is so impoverished it beggars belief. The exclamation marks simply emphasise the vacuous nature of what is being stated (shouted) and are a perfect example of a ‘stain on the silence‘ (That’s Beckett by the way).
There are presumably unintentionally comic interpretations of quotations from Robertson Davis, Ian McEwan et al, ad infinitum to add weight to flimsy ideas. There are also a few more passages I found quite sinister, strange at best. One particularly disconcerting example (p38-39) flits from a meeting with an ‘old flame’ to Giacometti’s ‘Woman with her throat cut’ and then focuses on Jeremy Irons and gynaecological instruments from Cronenberg’s Dead Ringers. Descriptions of women in this book could keep a Freudian analyst busy for a few lifetimes (the authors often use Freudian concepts, thus illustrating their engagement with cutting-edge psychology). An update of bad commercial Chardonnay – ‘Dolly Parton’ wines is offered as ”Pamela Anderson wines” because, obviously, Pammy is ‘up to date’ in the eyes of the authors but is also described as not a “real woman”. Make no mistake, when the humour falls flat and the underpinning constructs emerge, this is I think quite ugly stuff.
This is a book that has Hannibal Lecter in the Index but omits any mention of Adrienne Lehrer, the most informative and relevant writer on the language of wine. There are a hundred more similar indictments that could be made but, as with reading this book, life is too short. There is, in my opinion, still no book that collects together key theories and experimental results from psychology for wine lovers but there are some that explore fascinating and complex philosophical issues in the world of wine. Those interested in these should read either of two excellent collections – Fritz Allhoff’s ‘Wine and Philosophy; A Symposium on Thinking and Drinking’ or Barry C. Smith’s ‘Questions of Taste; The Philosophy of Wine’. They actually have a lot of psychology in them too.
Allhoff, F. (Ed.) (2008) Wine and Philosophy Wiley-Blackwell (Review Here)
Smith, B. C. (2007) Questions of Taste; The Philosophy of Wine Signal Books